Mammuthus (Mammoth)

There were several types of mammoth, all members of the elephant family. Most widespread was the Woolly Mammoths, which ranged across all northern continents and grew a very long, thick, hairy coat to keep out the bitter cold of the recent Ice Ages. 

The woolly mammoth was roughly the same size as modern African elephant. Males reached shoulder heights between 2.7 and 3.4 m (9 and 11 ft) and weighed up to 6 tonnes (6.6 short tons). Females averaged 2.6–2.9 metres (8.5–9.5 ft) in height and weighed up to 4 tonnes (4.4 short tons). A newborn calf weighed about 90 kilograms (200 lb).

The woolly mammoth coexisted with early humans, who used its bones and tusks for making art, tools, and dwellings, and the species was also hunted for food. It disappeared from its mainland range at the end of the Pleistocene 10,000 years ago, most likely through climate change and consequent shrinkage of its habitat, hunting by humans, or a combination of the two.

The teeth of a mammoth consist of a series of plates composed of enamel surrounding a dentine core. These are held together in a matrix of dental cement.
Each tooth erupted from the back of the jaw and slowly moved forward as it wore, to be replaced by another tooth from behind. The thickness and number of tooth plates are important identification criteria.